LORD - Leading Optimised Runway Delivery
Pairwise, time based or weather dependent separations would be challenging for the ATCO to apply without a support tool.
- EUROCONTROL is working with industry to develop a Separation Delivery support tool that integrates the different separation minima, runway(s) configuration and meteorological conditions, to advise the ATCO of the appropriate separation to be applied between two aircraft. The initial phase of this work was an extensive review of the best practices in terms of separation delivery in Europe. Site visits and controller interviews were organised at medium and major European airports, radar tracks were analysed and local procedures reviewed, the results of this analysis are summarized in the Optimised Runway Delivery page.
- In parallel, a model that predicts aircraft behaviour and speed management on the glide slope is being developed and benchmarked against collected radar tracks. The purpose of this model is to provide the ATCO with guidance to help apply separation that takes into account both the wake vortex minima and a buffer for the compression effect on short final approach. To be effective, such a model would need to consider aircraft specific performance characteristics (deceleration, final approach speed, etc. …) and actual weather conditions.
- A dedicated tool and Human-Machine Interface (HMI) is needed to support ATCOs in delivering the most suitable TBS/WDS/PWS minima between aircraft, also facilitating the management of spacing buffers. The HMI displays customised information for approach and control towers. Target distance indicators are displayed on the extended runway centreline of the final approach controller’s radar display and the tower runway controller’s air traffic monitor display.
Final Approach Distance Separation Minima reduction as a function of wind
- First chevron (red) indicates the separation minimum to be delivered
- Second chevron (black) indicates the buffer to cope with compression effect on final approach
- The tool helps ATCOs to manage the arrival traffic sequence through a dedicated TBS/WDS/PWS traffic list, or directly via the aircraft display labels. The LORD tool provides all TBS functionalities required by European Commission “PCP” regulation 716/2014, including detection and alerting in case of catch-up on approach, separation minima infringement, or wrong sequence order. The LORD tool has also been subject to safety and human factors assessment, based among others on Real-time simulation exercises, and resulting in a set of safety requirements. Such a tool facilitates separation delivery and management, and is complemented by indicators to manage spacing buffers. In addition, alerting functions provide warnings to controllers in case of imminent separation minima infringement, supporting a faster detection of the latter.
- The LORD tool supports arrival throughput management in adverse wind conditions, including complex traffic catch-up situations; integrates multiple spacing constraints for coping with wake separation minima, surveillance minima, Runway Occupancy Times (ROT), and will support all modes of runway operations, including mixed mode to create optimised gaps in approach sequence to enable departures in-between. As seen in RTS, when used in combination with RECAT 2 / Pair-Wise Separation minima, a 5 to 10% runway throughput increase is obtained irrespectively of wind conditions.